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Research and Citation Guide

Citation Generators

When writing a research paper, every borrowed word, idea, or fact must be clearly documented. Writers do this by creating a Works Cited page listing all of the print and nonprint sources used within the paper. It appears at the end of the research paper, and all sources are listed together, arranged alphabetically according to the first letter of each entry.

Citation Generators are interactive web tools designed to assist students and teachers in creating bibliographic citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, or Turabian style. Citations of print and electronic materials are automatically generated upon completion of an online form and can be copied and pasted into a Works Cited page.

BibMe: Fast
& Easy Bibliography Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian

Son of Citation Machine


MLA Citation Wizard

GoBiblio: Free Bibliography and Citation Generator

Citation Builder: NCSU Libraries


General Formatting Guidelines for Research Papers

MLA Style
Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide

APA Style
Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide

Chicago Style
Purdue OWL: Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition

MLA Citation Style Guides
MLA style refers to the guidelies used in writing and citing research papers as described in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). It is predominantly used in the humanities, especially English studies, and the studies of other modern languages and literatures including comparative literature, literary criticism, media studies, cultural studies and realted disciplines. MLA style features the use of parenthetical citations within the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the research paper.

Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide
MLA Citation Style | Cornell University Library
MLA Documentationa: UW-Madison Writing Center Writer's Handbook
Goucher College: MLA Style: Citations on a Works-Cited Page
Seneca Libraries: MLA Style Guide

Examples of MLA Citations
  • Print Sources
  • Online Sources
  • Multimedia Sources

Print Sources
  • Books
  • Parts of a Book
  • Reference Books
  • Periodicals
  • Government Documents
  • Maps and Charts
  • Other Print Sources

Author(s). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

A Book by One Author or Editor
Eaton, Katherine B. Daily Life in the Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. Print.

Streussguth, Thomas, ed. Custer’s Last Stand. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2003. Print.

A Book by Two or Three Authors or Editors
Bloom, Jonathan and Sheila Blair. Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 2002. Print.

Hinshaw, John and Paul Le Blanc, eds. U.S. Labor in the Twentieth Century: Studies in Working Class
Struggles and Insurgency. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2000. Print.
If the persons named on the title page are editors or compilers, add a comma after the final name, then the abbreviation "eds." or "comps."

Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson, eds. Analyzing American Government:
American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.

A Book by Four or More Authors or Editors
If there are more than three authors or editors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (the Latin abbreviation for "and others"), or you may list all of the authors in the same order in which they appear on the title page.

Shields, J., et al. The History of the English Alley. Hartford: Merganser Press,1997. Print.

A Book by a Corporate Author or Organization
A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell
University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1973. Print.

A Book with No Author
List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Anderson, Shaun and Collier, Paul.
The Book of Rule: How the World is Governed. London: DK, 2004. Print.

A Book with an Editor in Additon to an Author
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. F. W. Robinson. Boston:
Houghton, 1957. Print.

Two or More Books by the Same Author
When citing two or more books by the same author, list the author’s name in the first citation only. For subsequent citations, type three hypens, add a period, skip a space, and give the title. The three hyphens stand for the names(s) of the author(s) in the preceding entry. List the titles of the books in alphabetical order.

Nardo, Don. The American Revolution. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2003. Print.

---. Atlantis. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2003. Print.

If the person is the single author of one book but a joint author of another book, each entry must list the person’s name in full.

Mumford, Lewis. The Highway and the City. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1993. Print.

Mumford, Lewis and Stuart Hall. Pollution in the Cities. Boston: Little, Brown, 1990. Print.

An Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)
To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed." or, for multiple editors, "eds" (for edited by).
Ramazani, Jahan, Richard Ellman, and Robert O’Clair, eds. The Norton Anthology of Modern Contemporary
Poetry. New York: Norton, 2003. Print.

A Book That is Translated
Kertész, Imre. Fateless. Trans. Christopher C. Wilson and Katherine M. Wilson.
Evanston, IL: Northwester University Press, 1992. Print.

A Book That is Translated and Edited
Cite as you would any other book. Add "Trans."—the abbreviation for translated by—and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
Freud, Sigmund. The Letters of Sigmund Freud. Ed. Ernest L. Freud.
Trans. Tania and James Stern. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Print.

A Book in a Series

If a book is a part of a series, insert the name of the series and the number of the book’s place in the series between the title and publication information.

Stone, Frederick W. “Approaches to Teaching Byron’s Poetry.” Approaches to
Teaching World Literature
. Vol. 36. New York: Macmillan, 1991. Print.

A Book in a Literary Criticism Series
“Hemingway, Ernest.” Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 8. Detroit: Gale
Research, 1982. 39 vols. 174-210. Print.

Wexler, Barbara. Violent Relationships: Battering and Abuse among Adults.
Information Plus Reference Series. Detroit, Gale, 2003. Print.

A Book With Two or More Volumes
Page, Melvin E., ed. Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia.
Vol. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.

If the volume has a different title from the entire work, give the title of the multivolume set.

Arbor, Hannah. Imperialism. London: Oxford University Press, 1989. Vol.2 of The Origins of Totalitarianism,
3 vols. Print

A Sacred Text
Give the name of the specific edition you are using, any editor(s) associated with it, followed by the publication information.
The Holy Bible. Revised Standard Version. New York: New American Library, 1962. Print.
The New Jerusalem Bible. Ed. Susan Jones. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Print.

A Reprinted Book
Weston, Jessie L. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. 1920. New York: Doubleday, 1987. Print.

A Republished Book
Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. New York: Routledge, 1999. Print.
If a republished book has a different title from the original book, state the original title and publication date followed by “Rpt. as” (reprinted as) and the new title and publication information.

Isherwood, Christopher. Mr. Norris Changes Trains. 1935. Rpt as The Last Mr. Norris. New York:
Harper Row, 1967. Print.

A Second or Later Edition
Ornstein, Robert. Training Your Dog. 2nd. Ed. New York: Harcourt, 1997. Print.

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium of publication.
A Chapter in a Book
Jones, James. “American Economy Before the Civil War." American History. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1986. Print.

A Selection in an Anthology (Essay, Poem, Short Story)
Jones, James. “Daydreaming.” Fictions. Comp. and Ed. John Smith. New York: Harper and Row,
1968. 127-135. Print.

An Essay Written by One Person and Edited by Another
Weyler, Karen A. "Captivity Narratives." The History of Southern Women's Literature. Ed. Carolyn Perry
and Mary Louise Weaks. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Unviversity Press, 2002. 25-31. Print.

A Preface, Introduction, Foreward, or Afterward
When citing a foreward, begin with the name of the person who wrote the foreward, then the word “Foreward,” followed by the title of the work, its author and the other publication information including the page numbers. Follow the same procedure for citing a procedure for citing a preface, introduction, and afterward.

Pepin, Ronald E. Foreward. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-1997.
By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 1997. ii-ix. Print.
If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work, then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By."
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. By
Kenneth Burke. 1935. 3rd ed. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984. xiii-xliv. Print.

Author(s). Title of Book. Edition Year. Medium of publication.

A Signed Article in an Encyclopedia or Similar Reference Book

Littleton, C. Scott. “Mythology.” The World Book Encyclopedia. 1992. ed. Print.

An Unsigned Article in an Encyclopedia or Similar Reference Book
“Tibetians.” The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mankind. 1984 ed. Print.

An Article From a Less Familiar Encyclopedia or Reference Book

For articles from less familiar encyclopedias or reference books, include the full publication information.

Nielsen, Jorgen S. "European Culture and Islam." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World.
Ed. Richard C. Martin. New York: Macmillan Reference-Thomson/Gale, 2004. Print.

A Dictionary Entry

"Accord." Def.5b. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print.

"Onomatopoeia." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003. Print.

An Atlas or Gazeteer

Atlas of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Munro, David, ed. Cambridge World Gazetteer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

  • A Magazine Article
  • A Scholarly Journal Article
  • A Newspaper Article
  • A Review
  • A Letter to the Editor
  • A Reply to a Letter to the Editor

A Magazine Article
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Pages. Medium of publication.

A Signed Article in a Weekly or Bi-Monthly Magazine

Whitaker, Mark. “Getting Tough at Last.” Newsweek 10 May 1993: 22. Print.
Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. "A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste." Business Week 6 May
2002: 94-96. Print.

An Unsigned Article in a Weekly or Bi-Monthly Magazine

“A Mask of Genius.” Time 26 May 1980: 79. Print.
“Bacteriological Warfare.” Scientific American 11 March 1995: 67, 70. Print.

A Signed Article in a Monthly Magazine

Tobias, Sheila. “Math Anxiety and Physics: Some Thoughts on Learning Difficult Subjects.”
Physics Today June 1985: 60-68. Print.
Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping Mar. 2006: 143-48. Print.

An Unsigned Article in a Monthly Magazine

“Bacteriological Warfare.” Scientific American March 1995: 67, 70. Print.

A Magazine Article Whose Title Contains a Quotation or Title Within a Quotation

Hurley, Harold. “Cracking the Secret Code in Oate’s 'Where are You Going, Where Have You Been?’”
New Yorker 22 Feb. 1996: 43-47. Print.

A Scholarly Journal Article
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Year): Page(s). Medium of Publication.

A Journal Article with with Volume Number Only
Davis, William D., Thomas Cleary, Michelle Donnelly, and Samuel Hellerman. "Using Sensor Signals to
Analyze Fires." Fire Technology 39 (2003): 295-308. Print.

A Journal Article with Volume Number and Issue Number
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number.Issue Number (Year): Page(s). Medium of Publication.
Murphy, Karen L., Roseanne DePasquale, and Erin McNamara. "Meaningful Connections: Using
Technology in Primary Classrooms." Young Children 58.6 (2003): 12-18. Print.

A Newspaper Article

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Source Day Month Year: Section/ Page(s).

A Signed Article from a Daily Newspaper

Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001: D5 Print.

An Unsigned Article from a Daily Newspaper

“Crossroads for Civil Rights Policy.” Atlanta Constitution 28 May 1985: A22. Print.

A Newspaper Article with Non-continuous Pages

Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001: B3+. Print.

A Newspaper Article from a Late or Special Edition

If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition following the date (e.g. 17 May 1987, late ed.).

“Striking a Pose With Sally Miles.” New York Times 15 Oct. 1997, late ed.: D12. Print.

Wingfield, Nick. “Unraveling the Mysteries Inside Web Shopper’s Minds.” Wall Street Journal
18 June 1998: East ed.: B6+. Print.

A Review

Shapiro, Ellen. Rev. of The Ha-Ha by Dave King. People 63:5 (2005): 50.Print.
Kauffnan, Stanley. "Towards the Shadow." Rev. of Iris, dir. Richard Eyre. New Republic 11 Feb. 2002:
26- 27. Print.

A Letter to the Editor

Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Print.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan 2003: 33-37. Print.

A Reply to a Letter to the Editor

Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. Print.

Government Documents

Citations government agencies should include the name of the government first, then the name of the agency.

New York State. Commission on Capital Punishment. Report of the Commission to Investigate and Report
the Most Humane and Practical Method of Carrying Into Effect the Sentence of Death in Capital
Cases. Albany: Troy Press, 1988. Print.
U.S. Bureau of Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1987. 107th ed. Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1977. Print.
United Nations. General Assembly. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women
. New York: United Nations, 1979. Print.

Maps and Charts

A Map on a Single Sheet

Author. Title of Map. Format. Edition. Scale. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.

National Geographic Society. South Asia, with Afghanistan and Myanmar. Map. 1:7,345,000, 1"=116 miles.
Washington: National Geographic Society, May 1997. Print.

Manitoba: Municipalities Local Government Districts 1988. Map. 3rd edition. 1:1,000,000.
Winnipeg: Manitoba Natural Resources, Surveys and Mapping Branch, 1987. Print.

A Map in a Book

Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Book Author. Title of Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date: Page(s).

Baum, Frank L. "The Yellow Brick Road." Map. Scale not given. In: Frank L. Baum. The Wizard of Oz.
Kansas City: Munchkin, Inc., 1938: 32. Print.

"Dallas TX." Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Print.

A Map in a Magazine or Scholarly Journal

Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Article Author. "Article Title," Journal Title Volume (Year): Page(s).

Verne, Jules. "The Bottom of the Sea." Map. ½” = 20 leagues. In: Jules Verne. "Fantastic Voyage."
Travel and Leisure 56: (1852): 127. Print.

A Map in an Atlas

Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Author of Atlas. Atlas Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date, Page(s). Medium of Publication.

"Sin City." [map]. 1:62,500. In: Dante Alighieri. The Under-World Atlas. 2nd ed. Hades:
Firestorm Press, 1298: 13. Print.

A Chart in a Book

Author. Title of Chart. Format. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Print.

Other Print Sources

An Advertisement

Lufthansa. Advertisement. Time 20 Nov. 2000: 151. Print.

A Diagram in a Book

Author. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.

Meridian, Merry. Lines for All Occasions. Greenwich: Straight Shooter Press, 1985. Print.

A Diagram in a Magazine or Scholarly Journal

Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine or Journal. Volume Number (Date): Page(s). Medium of Publication.

Krygier, John B., David H. Hickcox, and Richard D. Fusch. “Go Up Yonder and Turn Right or Left:
Directions for Successful Field Work.” Journal for the Edification of Geographers 3 (1998): 1-27. Print.

Background Notes

U.S. Department of State. Bangladesh. Background Notes. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing
Office, April 1987. Print.

A Published Dissertation

Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1987.
Merganse Press: Hartford, 1996. Print.

An Unpublished Dissertation

Darling, Charles W. “Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur.” Diss. Rutgers U. 1997. Print.

A Legal Document

Do not underline or put quotation marks around titles of laws or acts. You may abbreviate titles, with the works cited by sections and the years added if relevant.

21 US Code. Sec. 1401a. 1988. Print.

US Const. Art. 1, sec. 1. Print.

Citations of acts require the act’s name, its Public Law number, the date it was enacted, and its Statutes at Large cataloging number.

Driving a Professor Crazy Act of 1996. Publ. L. 100-418. 14 Nov. 1996. Stat. 99.1496. PRint.

The names of cases (unlike laws) are underlined.

Pepin v. Medieval Scholars Soc. of America. 176 USPQ 677. CT. Super. Ct. 1996. Print.

A Pamphlet or Brochure

Office of the Dean of Students. Resources for Success: Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit
Disorders. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 2000. Print.

A Letter

Jordan, Barbara. Letter to author. 12 December 1994. Print.

Online Sources

  • Web Sites
  • Online Books
  • Online Encyclopedia Articles
  • Online Magazine Articles
  • Online Scholarly Journals
  • Online Newspaper Articles
  • Online Government Publications
  • Online Maps, Charts and Diagrams
  • Articles from Online Subscription Databases
  • Online Communications

Web Sites

MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. Because Web addresses often change and documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web, MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources by title or author searches in Internet Search Engines.
If your teacher requires a URL for Web sources, include the URL, enclosed in angle brackets, at the end of the entry. When a URL in a works cited entry must be divided at the end of a line, break it after a slash. Do not insert a hyphen.

A Web Site With an Author

Author(s). Title of Site. Sonsor of Site. Publication Date or Most Recent Update. Medium. Date of Access.

Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther. Lynn Peterson, 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2009.

Schrock, Kathy. Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators. Discovery Education, 1 May 1995. Web.
2 May 2001.

A Web Site With an Organization or Group as Author
Biography Online. 27 Nov. 2002.The Biography Channel. Web. 27 Nov. 2002.

Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. 2002. Library of Congress. Web. 27 Nov. 2002.

A Web Site With No Author
Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana University, 4 Jan. 1998. Web.
15 May 2006.
Margaret Sanger Papers Project. History Dept., New York U, 18 Oct. 2000. Web. 6 Jan. 2009.

A Web Site With an Editor
Halsall, Paul, ed. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham U, 22 Sept. 2001. Web. 19 Jan. 2009.

A Web Site with No Title

If no title for the web site is given, write Home page. Do not underline or use quotation marks. Home page. Web. 28 Apr. 2000.
Yoon, Mina. Home page. Oak Ridge Natl. Laboratory, 28 Dec. 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2009.

A Web Site with No Publication Date
"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2009.

A Personal Web Site

Author. Home Page. Publication Date. Medium. Date of Access.

Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 28 Mar. 2002. Web. 15 May 2002.

Online Books

Author. Title of Book. Editor, Compiler or Translator. Title of Web Site. Sponsonr of Site, Year of Publication. Web. Date of Access.

An Entire Online Book

Milton, John. Paradise Lost: Book I. Poetry Foundation, 2008. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.
Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio. E-text created by Judith Boss for Project Gutenberg.
Champaign, IL, 1996. Web. 26 July 2000.

Part of an Online Book

Author. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication, or Most Recent Update. Name of Institution or Organization. Medium. Date of Access .

Adams, Henry. "Diplomacy." The Education of Henry Adams. Boston: Houghton, 1918. N. pag. Great Books Online. Web. 8 Jan. 2007.

An Online Poem, Essay or Short Story With an Author

Nesbit, Edith. "Marching Song." Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women
Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. Web. 26 Apr. 1997.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Spiritual Laws.” Essays. 26 May 1999. Internet Public Library. Web.
4 Dec. 2002.

Online Encyclopedia Articles

Author. "Title of Article." Title of of Encyclopedia. Subscriber Name, Place. Publisher. Medium. Access Date.

A Signed Online Encyclopedia Article

Rice,Otis K. "Lewis and ClarkExpedition." The New Book of KnowledgeOnline. Grolier Interactive, 2005. Web.. 23 Oct. 2008.

An Unsigned Online Encyclopedia Article

"Ernest Hemingway." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2005. Web. 14 Feb. 2007.

Online Magazine Articles

Author. Title of Article." Title of Magazine. Date: Page(s) (if given). Medium. Access Date.

A Signed Online Magazine Article
Murphy, H. Lee. "Saturn's Orbit Still High With Consumers." Marketing News Online. 31 Aug. 1998.
Web. 1 Sept. 2001.

An Unsigned Online Magazine Article

"Health-Care Inflation: It's Baaack!" Business Week. 17 Mar. 1997. Web. 18 Mar. 1997.

Online Scholarly Journals

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal. Volume Number. Issue Number. (Year of Publication). Page(s) (if given). Medium. Access Date.

Koehn, Daryl. "The Ethics of Handwriting Analysis in Pre-Employment Screening." The Online Journal
of Ethics 1.1 (1995). Web. 2 June 2001.
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social
Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6.2 (2008): n. pag. Web. 20 May 2009.

An Online Scholarly Journal Article with No Page Numbers

If an online article has no date, use n. pag. following the publication information.
Chaplin, Heather. "Epidemic of Extravagance." Salon 19 Feb. 1999. n. pag. Web. 12 July 1999.

Online Newspaper Articles

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper. Date, Edition: Page(s) and Section (if given). Medium. Access Date.
Ruben, Joel. "Report Faults Charter School." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 22 Jan. 2006. Web.
23 Jan 2006.
McMillan, Jennifer. "Paper Looks to Past for Fresh Ideas." Toronto Globe 29 July 2009. B3. LexusNexux Academic.

Online Government Publications

An Online Government Publication With an Author
Personal Author. Government Issuing the Document. Agency or Department. Title of Document. Place of Publication: Publication Office, Date of Publication. Medium of publication.
Harlow, Caroline Wolf. Hate Crime Reported by Victims and Police. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of
Justice Statistics, Nov. 2005. Web. 11 Sept. 2008.

Government Name. Name of Government Agency. Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Database/Website name. Medium. Date of access.
United States. Census Bureau. The 2009 Statistical Abstract. Washington: GPO, 2009. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.
United States. National Science and Technology Council. Committee on Environment and Natural Resources. Scientific Assessment of
the Effects of Global Change on the United States. Washington: Natl. Science and Technology Council, May 2008. Web. 11 Sept.

Online Maps, Charts and Diagrams

"Title of Map. " Format. Scale. Title of of Web Site. Date of Publication. Medium. Access Date.

"Afghanistan." Map. Visual Scale. The World Factbook 2: Afghanistan. 20 May 2008. Web. 5 Sept 2009.
Human Skeleton. Diagram. 2001. Enchanted Learning. Web. 14 June 2008.
"Public Opinion on the Moral Acceaptablity of Cloning Animals, 2001-04." Chart. Cloning Animals in "Moral
Issues, " poll Topics and Trends. 2005 Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 23 July 2009.

Articles from Online Subscription Databases

Previous editions of MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location). This information is no longer required by MLA.
An Article in a Book from a Subscription Database

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date.

Nielsen, Jorgen S. "European Culture and Islam. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World.
Ed. Richard C. Martin. New York: Macmillan Reference-Thomson/Gale, 2004. Web. 4 July 2009.

A Magazine Article from a Subscription Database

Author. “Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s) (if given). Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date.
<pre>Heyman, J.D., and Johnny Dodd. "New Arm, Same Spirit." <em>People</em> 23 Feb. 2004: 58+. <em>MasterFILE Premier</em>. 
 EBSCO<em>host.</em> Web. 8 May 2004. <http: com="" galenet.galegroup.=""> 
Mason, Betsy. "Season of Fire." Discover<em> </em>Feb. 2003: 32-39. <em>SIRS Researcher</em>. SIRS Knowledge Source. 
 Web. 8 May 2004. 

A Scholarly Journal Article from a Subscription Database

Author. “Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number.Issue Number. (Year of Publication). Page(s) (if given). Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date.

Montana, Giovanni and Jonathan K. Pritchard. "Statistical Tests for Admixture Mapping with
Case-Control and Cases-Only Data." American Journal of Human Genetics 75.5 (2004).771+.
Science Resource Center. Gale. Web.15 Feb. 2005.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal 50.1 (2007):
173-96. ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2009.

A Newspaper Article from a Subscription Database

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper. Date, Edition, Section: Page(s) (if given). Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date .

Glanz, James."Recount of Disputed Votes to Delay Results." New York Times. 10 Feb. 2005.
eLlibrary Curriculum Edition. Proquest Company.Web. 15 Feb 2005.

A Digital Archive

Fiore, Mark. Shockwaves. 18 Oct. 2001. September 11 Digital Archive. Web. 3 apr. 2009.
Oblinger, Maggie. Letter to Charlie Thomas. 31 Mar. 1895. Nebraska State Hist. Soc. Prairie
Settlement: Nebraska Photographs and Family Letters, 1862-1912. Web. 3 Apr. 2009.

Online Communications

An Email Message
Name of Writer (if known). “Title of Message.” Description of Message that Includes Recipient. Date. Medium.

Wang, Jun. "Introducing Web2." E-mail to Judy Young. 28 July 2000. Email.
Lowe, Walter. “Review Questions.” Message to the author. 15 Mar. 2009. E-mail.

An Entry or Comment in a Weblog (Blog)
Black, Sheree. "On the Job: Design vs. Content (ding, ding!)" The Azusa Pacific Blog. Azusa Pacific University,
16 Dec. 2009. Web. 21 Jan. 2010.
"Social Media: Facebook and MySpace as University Curricula." Open Education. Open Education. net, n.d.
Web. 19 Sept. 2008.
Cindy. Weblog comment. Open Education. Open, 5 Sept. 2008. Web. 14 aug. 2009.

A Listserv or Discussion Group

Camilleri, Rosemary. "Narrative Bibliography." Online posting. 10 Mar. 1997. Web. 11 Mar. 1997.

Entry in a Wiki
"Negation in Languages." UniLang, 25 Oct. 2004. Web. June 10, 2009.
"Hip Hop Music." Wikipedia. Wikipedia Foundation, 26, Sept. 2008. Web. 18 Mar. 2010.

Multimedia Sources
  • Radio and Television
  • Movies
  • Theater
  • Sound Recordings
  • Musical Compositions
  • Advertisements
  • Interviews
  • Speeches or Lectures
  • Works of Art
  • Photographs
  • A Comic Book or Cartoon
  • A Podcast
  • A Kindle Book
  • A Tweet
  • A YouTube Video

Radio and Television

"Title of Episode". Name (Writer, Narrator, Producer, Director) . Title of Series. Name of Network. Radio Station or TV Channel Call Letters, City of Local Station or Channel. Broadcast Date. Medium.

A Radio Program

"Mumia Abu Jamal: 15th Anniversary of His Arrest." Democracy Now. Pacifica. KPFA-FM, Berkeley, CA
9 Dec. 1996. Radio.

"The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation." The Diane Rehm Show. Host Diane Rehm, National Public
Radio. Web. 30 Jan. 2007.

"Balance vs. Bias in Journalism." Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. WYPR, 7 Apr. 2006. Web. 1 May 2008.

A Television Program

"Katrina's Animal Rescue." Narr. Laura Dern. Nature. PBS 20 Nov. 2005. Television.

"Chicken, Shrimp, and Sausage Stew." Hot off the Grill with Bobby Flay. Food Network, 7 Jan. 2000. Television.

"How the Earth Was Made: Vesuvius." 1 Dec. 2009. History Channel Website. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.


Title. Dir. (Name of Director) Perf. (Names of principle performers) Distributor, Year. Medium.

A Film, Videocassette, or DVD

The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chass Palminteri,
Stephen Baldwin,and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.

The Mirror Has Two Faces. Dir. Barbra Streisand. Perf. Barbra Steisand, Jeff Bridges, Lauren Bacall,
Mimi Rogers, Pierce Brosnan, and George Segal. Tri-Star Video, 1996. DVD.

Enter the Dragon. Dir. Robert Clouse. 1973. Warner, 2005. Videocassette.

It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Captra. Perf. James Stewart and Donna Reed. RKO, 20 Dec. 1946.
The Internet Movie Database. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.

A Film Clip

The History of YouTube. Dir. Robert Hinderliter. 18 May 2007. YouTube. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.


Title. By Name of Author/Composer. Dir. Name of Director. Perf. Names of Performers. Theatre, City. Date of Performance. Medium.
A Play, Opera, Ballet, Concert, or Theatrical Performance

Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Dir. Tom None. Winter Garden, New York,
13 Aug. 1988. Performance.

The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James Kudelka. Cond.
Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of Canada. Hummingbird Centre,
Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Performance.

The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
4 Mar. 2005. Performance.

Sound Recordings

Group or Artist. “Title of Song.” Title of Recording. Type of Recording. Maufacturer, Year. Medium.

A Sound Recording

Turner, Tina. “Missing You.” All the Best. Capital, 2004. CD.

Piccolomini, Josepe. Anita Anita. Perf. Helen Brown, Grace Spark, and Paul Messer. Springfield Opera Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Leon Nigh. Grammolon, 1955. LP.

Indigo Girls, perf. “Tangled Up in Blue.” By Bob Dylan. 1200 Curfews. Rec. 1994. Sony, 1995. MP3 file.

McDonald, Michael. No Lookin' Back. Warner Bros., 1985. Audiocassette.

Blakey, Art. "The Egyptian." Indestructible. Blue Note, 1964. Web. 28 July 2009.

Musical Compositions

Name of Composer. Title of Work. opus, number. Medium.

A Composition, Ballet, or Opera

Handel, G.F. Messiah: An Oratorio. N.d. CCARH Publications: Scores and Parts. Center for Computer
Assisted Reseach in the Humanties, 2003. Web. 5 Jan. 2009.
Strauss, Richard. Trumerei, op. 9, no. 4. Print.

Do not italicize compositions identified only by form, number and key.

Beethoven, Ludvig van. Symphony no. 5 in A, op. 92. Print.

A Musical Score

Name of Composer. Title of Work, Op., No. Date Composition Written. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918. Print.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933. Print.

Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Print.


Name of Product. Company, or Institution. Descriptive Label. Channel. Date. Medium.

A Television or Radio Advertisement

Staples. Advertisement. CBS. 3 Dec. 2000. Television.

Truth by Calvin Klein. Advertisement. Vogue Dec. 2000: 95-98. Print.

Arbella Insurance. Advertisement. New York Times, n.d.. Web. 3 June 2009.


A Personal Interview

Purdue, Peter. Personal Interview. 1 Dec. 2000.

Diamaond, Carol. Telephone Interview. 27 May 2002.

A Published Interview

Damon, Matt. Interview. People Magazine 29 July 1998: 78-80.

A Television or Radio Interview

Clinton, Bill. Interview with Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. WTNH, New Haven. 14 Nov.1996. Radio.

Weisel. Elie. Interview by Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. WABC. New York, 18 Apr. 2002. Television.

Speeches or Lectures

Speaker's Name. "Title of Lecture or Speech." The Sponsoring Organization. Location, City. Date (day, month, year format). Medium.

A Speech or Lecture

Harris, Muriel. "Writing Labs: A Short History." 2003 Writing Center Conference. National Writing Centers Association. La Swank Hotel, Seattle. 28 March 2003. Lecture.

If the lecture or speech has no title, use an appropriate descriptive label (e.g., Lecture, Address, Keynote speech). Do not underline or enclose it in quotation marks.

Scroggs, Biff G. Keynote speech. Bushnell Conf. on Baseball Heroes. Bushnell Auditorium, Hartford.12 May 2003.

Bittman, Mark. "What's Wrong with What We Eat?" TED Talks, 12 Dec. 2007. Web. 18 May 2009.

Works of Art

A Work of Art Reproduced in a Book

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Print.

A Work of Art from a Subscription Database

Blake, Willam. Creation of Adam and Eve. N.d. ARTstor. Web. 26 Jan. 2008.

A Painting or Drawing

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503-1506. Oil on Wood. Louvre, Paris.
Close, Chuck. Ronald. 2002. Museum of Modern Art, New York. MOMA. Web. 5 Jan. 2008.

A Sculpture

Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Sculpture. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Sculpture. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris.


A Photograph Reproduced in a Book

Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones. By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.232. Print.

A Personal Photograph

War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. 22 Mar. 2003.

Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.

Hoflehner, Josef. Liquid Wall. N.d. Private Collection. Photographer's Gallery. web. 25 Mar. 2009.

A Comic Book or Cartoon

Conley, Darby. "Get Fuzzy." Comic Strip. Express-News, San Antonio. 6 May 2004: D4. Print.
Lester, Mike. "Toyota Writes a Check." Cartoon. Daryl Cagle's Professional
Cartoonists Index. 20 Apr. 2010. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.

A Podcast

Rennie, Michael. "From Spooky Action to Tiny Radios." Host Steve Mirskly, Science Talk.
Scientific American, 4 Mar. 2009. MP3 file. 15 Mar. 2009.
"First Coed College." Profile America, 7 Sept. 2006. General OneFile. Web. 23 July 2009.
Price, Caroline and Timothy Chappell. “Can Love Be Rational?” The Philosophy of Love – Audio. iTunes U. The Open University, 2011.
Podcast. 2 Mar. 2012.

A YouTube Video
The MLA does not specifically address how to cite a YouTube video. Based on Purdue OWL standards for other media formats, the following format is the most acceptable for citing YouTube videos:
Shimabukuro, Jake. "Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro." Online video clip.YouTube. You Tube, 22 Apr. 2006.
Web. 9. Sept. 2010.
Obama, Barack. "We Have a Lot of Work to Do." Speech.YouTube. 2 Nov. 2008. You Tube, Web. 23 June 2009.
"How to Train a Cat to Operate a Light Switch." Richard Norton. YouTube. You Tube, 4 Nov. 2006. Web. 27 Aug. 2009.

A Kindle Book

Levitt, Steven D. Freakonomics. New Yrok: Harper Collins, 2006. Kindle file.

A Tweet
Athar, Sohaib (ReallyVirtual). “Helicopter hovering above Abbottabad at 1AM is a rare event.” 1 May 2011, 3:58 p.m.
Zabolotney, Bonne (BonneZ). “Stories as data : rich and diverse way to approach health design research #maggiebreslin”.
7 March 2012, 7:58 p.m. Tweet.

APA Citation Style Guides
APA style refers to the guidelines used in writing and citing research papers as described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It is predominantly used in the social sciences, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, business, economics, nursing, social work, and criminology, and in the hard sciences.

Style Guide

UW – Madison Writing Center Writer’s Handbook

Purdue Online Writing Lab: APA Style

APA Citation Style

APA Style Citations and Rules

APA Citation Examples

Chicago and Turabian Citation Style Guides
Chicago style refers to the guidelines used in writing and citing research papers as described in the The ChicagoStyle Manual, 16th ed. It presents two basic systems of documentation:

• Humanities Style (Notes and Bibliography Style) is used in literature, arts and history. Sources are cited using footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is provided at the end of the paper on a separate page. The bibliography includes all resources used, not just those cited in the references. Citations include all available information and are listed in alphabetical order.

• Scientific/Social Sciences Style (Author-Date Style) is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences.Bibilographic information is cited cited in the body or text of the research paper using parenthetical notations. A Works Cited page is provided at the end of the paper.

Turabian style refers to the guidelines used in writing and citing research papers as described in Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. It is based on the University of Chicago Press’s Manual of Style, incorporating the most important rules of Chicago style and omitting some publishing details and options. Turabian style is intended for papers, theses, dissertations, and other scholarly research not meant for publication.

There are two basic systems of Turabian style documentation:

• Notes and Bibliography Style is generally used in literature, history, and the arts. Bibliographic information is cited within the text using numbered footnotes or endnotes. A Bibliography or Works Cited list is provided at the end of the paper, listing alphabetically all sources used.

• In-text Author-Date Citations and Reference List is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Sources are cited in parenthesis within the text and include the author's last name, publication year, and page(s) referred to. An alphabetized Reference List at the end of the paper provides full bibliographic information for all works cited in parenthetical citations.

Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide

The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

Chicago Manual of Style - Documentary Note or Humanities Style

Turabian Quick Guide

Turabian Citation Style Guide

Turabian Citation Style Guide

SFU Library - Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian Style

Citing Sources Using Chicago/Turabian Style: Author-Date System

Citing Sources Using Chicago/Turabian Style: Notes System

Turabian and Chicago Styles Citations