Research and Citation Guide
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- Print Sources
- Online Sources
- Multimedia Sources
- Parts of a Book
- Reference Books
- Government Documents
- Maps and Charts
- Other Print Sources
A Book by One Author or Editor
Streussguth, Thomas, ed. Custer’s Last Stand. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2003. Print.
Hinshaw, John and Paul Le Blanc, eds. U.S. Labor in the Twentieth Century: Studies in Working Class
Struggles and Insurgency. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2000. Print.
Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson, eds. Analyzing American Government:
American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.
Shields, J., et al. The History of the English Alley. Hartford: Merganser Press,1997. Print.
University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1973. Print.
Houghton, 1957. Print.
Nardo, Don. The American Revolution. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2003. Print.
---. Atlantis. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2003. Print.
If the person is the single author of one book but a joint author of another book, each entry must list the person’s name in full.
Mumford, Lewis. The Highway and the City. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1993. Print.
Mumford, Lewis and Stuart Hall. Pollution in the Cities. Boston: Little, Brown, 1990. Print.
Poetry. New York: Norton, 2003. Print.
Evanston, IL: Northwester University Press, 1992. Print.
Trans. Tania and James Stern. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Print.
A Book in a Series
Stone, Frederick W. “Approaches to Teaching Byron’s Poetry.” Approaches to
Teaching World Literature. Vol. 36. New York: Macmillan, 1991. Print.
Research, 1982. 39 vols. 174-210. Print.
Wexler, Barbara. Violent Relationships: Battering and Abuse among Adults.
Information Plus Reference Series. Detroit, Gale, 2003. Print.
Vol. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.
If the volume has a different title from the entire work, give the title of the multivolume set.
Arbor, Hannah. Imperialism. London: Oxford University Press, 1989. Vol.2 of The Origins of Totalitarianism,
Isherwood, Christopher. Mr. Norris Changes Trains. 1935. Rpt as The Last Mr. Norris. New York:
Harper Row, 1967. Print.
Yale University Press, 1986. Print.
1968. 127-135. Print.
and Mary Louise Weaks. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Unviversity Press, 2002. 25-31. Print.
Pepin, Ronald E. Foreward. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-1997.
A Signed Article in an Encyclopedia or Similar Reference Book
For articles from less familiar encyclopedias or reference books, include the full publication information.
Nielsen, Jorgen S. "European Culture and Islam." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World.
Ed. Richard C. Martin. New York: Macmillan Reference-Thomson/Gale, 2004. Print.
"Accord." Def.5b. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print.
"Onomatopoeia." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003. Print.
Atlas of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Munro, David, ed. Cambridge World Gazetteer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
- A Magazine Article
- A Scholarly Journal Article
- A Newspaper Article
- A Review
- A Letter to the Editor
- A Reply to a Letter to the Editor
A Signed Article in a Weekly or Bi-Monthly Magazine
Whitaker, Mark. “Getting Tough at Last.” Newsweek 10 May 1993: 22. Print.
“A Mask of Genius.” Time 26 May 1980: 79. Print.
Tobias, Sheila. “Math Anxiety and Physics: Some Thoughts on Learning Difficult Subjects.”
Physics Today June 1985: 60-68. Print.
An Unsigned Article in a Monthly Magazine
“Bacteriological Warfare.” Scientific American March 1995: 67, 70. Print.
A Magazine Article Whose Title Contains a Quotation or Title Within a Quotation
Hurley, Harold. “Cracking the Secret Code in Oate’s 'Where are You Going, Where Have You Been?’”
New Yorker 22 Feb. 1996: 43-47. Print.
A Journal Article with with Volume Number Only
A Journal Article with Volume Number and Issue Number
A Newspaper Article
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Source Day Month Year: Section/ Page(s).
A Signed Article from a Daily Newspaper
Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001: D5 Print.
An Unsigned Article from a Daily Newspaper
“Crossroads for Civil Rights Policy.” Atlanta Constitution 28 May 1985: A22. Print.
A Newspaper Article with Non-continuous Pages
Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001: B3+. Print.
A Newspaper Article from a Late or Special Edition
If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition following the date (e.g. 17 May 1987, late ed.).
“Striking a Pose With Sally Miles.” New York Times 15 Oct. 1997, late ed.: D12. Print.
Wingfield, Nick. “Unraveling the Mysteries Inside Web Shopper’s Minds.” Wall Street Journal
18 June 1998: East ed.: B6+. Print.
A Letter to the Editor
Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Print.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan 2003: 33-37. Print.
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. Print.
Citations government agencies should include the name of the government first, then the name of the agency.
the Most Humane and Practical Method of Carrying Into Effect the Sentence of Death in Capital
Cases. Albany: Troy Press, 1988. Print.
Government Printing Office, 1977. Print.
Against Women. New York: United Nations, 1979. Print.
Maps and Charts
A Map on a Single Sheet
Author. Title of Map. Format. Edition. Scale. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.
National Geographic Society. South Asia, with Afghanistan and Myanmar. Map. 1:7,345,000, 1"=116 miles.
Washington: National Geographic Society, May 1997. Print.
Manitoba: Municipalities Local Government Districts 1988. Map. 3rd edition. 1:1,000,000.
Winnipeg: Manitoba Natural Resources, Surveys and Mapping Branch, 1987. Print.
A Map in a Book
Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Book Author. Title of Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date: Page(s).
Baum, Frank L. "The Yellow Brick Road." Map. Scale not given. In: Frank L. Baum. The Wizard of Oz.
Kansas City: Munchkin, Inc., 1938: 32. Print.
"Dallas TX." Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico. Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Print.
Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Article Author. "Article Title," Journal Title Volume (Year): Page(s).
Verne, Jules. "The Bottom of the Sea." Map. ½” = 20 leagues. In: Jules Verne. "Fantastic Voyage."
Travel and Leisure 56: (1852): 127. Print.
Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Author of Atlas. Atlas Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date, Page(s). Medium of Publication.
"Sin City." [map]. 1:62,500. In: Dante Alighieri. The Under-World Atlas. 2nd ed. Hades:
Firestorm Press, 1298: 13. Print.
Author. Title of Chart. Format. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.
2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Print.
Other Print Sources
Lufthansa. Advertisement. Time 20 Nov. 2000: 151. Print.
Author. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.
Meridian, Merry. Lines for All Occasions. Greenwich: Straight Shooter Press, 1985. Print.
Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine or Journal. Volume Number (Date): Page(s). Medium of Publication.
Krygier, John B., David H. Hickcox, and Richard D. Fusch. “Go Up Yonder and Turn Right or Left:
Directions for Successful Field Work.” Journal for the Edification of Geographers 3 (1998): 1-27. Print.
U.S. Department of State. Bangladesh. Background Notes. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing
Office, April 1987. Print.
Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1987.
Merganse Press: Hartford, 1996. Print.
Darling, Charles W. “Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur.” Diss. Rutgers U. 1997. Print.
Do not underline or put quotation marks around titles of laws or acts. You may abbreviate titles, with the works cited by sections and the years added if relevant.
21 US Code. Sec. 1401a. 1988. Print.
US Const. Art. 1, sec. 1. Print.
Citations of acts require the act’s name, its Public Law number, the date it was enacted, and its Statutes at Large cataloging number.
Driving a Professor Crazy Act of 1996. Publ. L. 100-418. 14 Nov. 1996. Stat. 99.1496. PRint.
The names of cases (unlike laws) are underlined.
Pepin v. Medieval Scholars Soc. of America. 176 USPQ 677. CT. Super. Ct. 1996. Print.
Office of the Dean of Students. Resources for Success: Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit
Disorders. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 2000. Print.
Jordan, Barbara. Letter to author. 12 December 1994. Print.
- Web Sites
- Online Books
- Online Encyclopedia Articles
- Online Magazine Articles
- Online Scholarly Journals
- Online Newspaper Articles
- Online Government Publications
- Online Maps, Charts and Diagrams
- Articles from Online Subscription Databases
- Online Communications
MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. Because Web addresses often change and documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web, MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources by title or author searches in Internet Search Engines.
A Web Site With an Author
Author(s). Title of Site. Sonsor of Site. Publication Date or Most Recent Update. Medium. Date of Access
Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther. Lynn Peterson, 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2009.
Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. 2002. Library of Congress. Web. 27 Nov. 2002
If no title for the web site is given, write Home page. Do not underline or use quotation marks.
Edmunds.com. Home page. Web. 28 Apr. 2000
A Personal Web Site
Author. Home Page. Publication Date. Medium. Date of Access
Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 28 Mar. 2002. Web. 15 May 2002.
Author. Title of Book. Editor, Compiler or Translator. Title of Web Site. Sponsonr of Site, Year of Publication. Web. Date of Access
An Entire Online Book
Milton, John. Paradise Lost: Book I. Poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation, 2008. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.
Champaign, IL, 1996. Web. 26 July 2000.
Part of an Online Book
Adams, Henry. "Diplomacy." The Education of Henry Adams. Boston: Houghton, 1918. N. pag.
Nesbit, Edith. "Marching Song." Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women
Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. Web. 26 Apr. 1997
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Spiritual Laws.” Essays. 26 May 1999. Internet Public Library. Web.
4 Dec. 2002
Author. "Title of Article." Title of of Encyclopedia. Subscriber Name, Place. Publisher. Medium. Access Date
Rice,Otis K. "Lewis and ClarkExpedition." The New Book of KnowledgeOnline. Grolier Interactive, 2005. Web.. 23 Oct. 2008.
An Unsigned Online Encyclopedia Article
"Ernest Hemingway." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2005. Web. 14 Feb. 2007.
Author. Title of Article." Title of Magazine. Date: Page(s) (if given). Medium. Access Date.
A Signed Online Magazine Article
Murphy, H. Lee. "Saturn's Orbit Still High With Consumers." Marketing News Online. 31 Aug. 1998.
Web. 1 Sept. 2001.
"Health-Care Inflation: It's Baaack!" Business Week. 17 Mar. 1997. Web. 18 Mar. 1997.
Koehn, Daryl. "The Ethics of Handwriting Analysis in Pre-Employment Screening." The Online Journal
of Ethics 1.1 (1995). Web. 2 June 2001.
Online Government Publications
Government Name. Name of Government Agency. Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Database/Website name. Medium. Date of access.
"Title of Map. " Format. Scale. Title of of Web Site. Date of Publication. Medium. Access Date
"Afghanistan." Map. Visual Scale. The World Factbook 2: Afghanistan. 20 May 2008. Web. 5 Sept 2009.
Previous editions of MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location). This information is no longer required by MLA.
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date
Author. “Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s) (if given). Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date
<pre>Heyman, J.D., and Johnny Dodd. "New Arm, Same Spirit." <em>People</em> 23 Feb. 2004: 58+. <em>MasterFILE Premier</em>.
EBSCO<em>host.</em> Web. 8 May 2004. <http: com="" galenet.galegroup.=""> </http:>
Mason, Betsy. "Season of Fire." Discover<em> </em>Feb. 2003: 32-39. <em>SIRS Researcher</em>. SIRS Knowledge Source.
Web. 8 May 2004.
Author. “Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number.Issue Number. (Year of Publication). Page(s) (if given). Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date
Montana, Giovanni and Jonathan K. Pritchard. "Statistical Tests for Admixture Mapping with
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper. Date, Edition, Section: Page(s) (if given). Name of Database. Publisher of Subscription Service. Web. Access Date
Glanz, James."Recount of Disputed Votes to Delay Results." New York Times. 10 Feb. 2005.
An Email Message
Wang, Jun. "Introducing Web2." E-mail to Judy Young. 28 July 2000. Email.
A Listserv or Discussion Group
Camilleri, Rosemary. "Narrative Bibliography." Online posting. 10 Mar. 1997. Web. 11 Mar. 1997
- Radio and Television
- Sound Recordings
- Musical Compositions
- Speeches or Lectures
- Works of Art
- A Comic Book or Cartoon
- A Podcast
- A Kindle Book
- A Tweet
- A YouTube Video
Radio and Television
"Title of Episode". Name (Writer, Narrator, Producer, Director) . Title of Series. Name of Network. Radio Station or TV Channel Call Letters, City of Local Station or Channel. Broadcast Date. Medium.
A Radio Program
"Mumia Abu Jamal: 15th Anniversary of His Arrest." Democracy Now. Pacifica. KPFA-FM, Berkeley, CA
9 Dec. 1996. Radio.
"The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation." The Diane Rehm Show. Host Diane Rehm, National Public
Radio. NPR.org. Web. 30 Jan. 2007.
"Balance vs. Bias in Journalism." Talk of the Nation. National Public Radio. WYPR, 7 Apr. 2006. Web. 1 May 2008.
A Television Program
"Katrina's Animal Rescue." Narr. Laura Dern. Nature. PBS 20 Nov. 2005. Television.
"Chicken, Shrimp, and Sausage Stew." Hot off the Grill with Bobby Flay. Food Network, 7 Jan. 2000. Television.
"How the Earth Was Made: Vesuvius." 1 Dec. 2009. History Channel Website. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Title. Dir. (Name of Director) Perf. (Names of principle performers) Distributor, Year. Medium.
A Film, Videocassette, or DVD
The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chass Palminteri,
Stephen Baldwin,and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.
The Mirror Has Two Faces. Dir. Barbra Streisand. Perf. Barbra Steisand, Jeff Bridges, Lauren Bacall,
Mimi Rogers, Pierce Brosnan, and George Segal. Tri-Star Video, 1996. DVD.
Enter the Dragon. Dir. Robert Clouse. 1973. Warner, 2005. Videocassette.
It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Captra. Perf. James Stewart and Donna Reed. RKO, 20 Dec. 1946.
The Internet Movie Database. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
The History of YouTube. Dir. Robert Hinderliter. 18 May 2007. YouTube. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Title. By Name of Author/Composer. Dir. Name of Director. Perf. Names of Performers. Theatre, City. Date of Performance. Medium.
Phantom of the Opera. By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Dir. Tom None. Winter Garden, New York,
13 Aug. 1988. Performance.
The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James Kudelka. Cond.
Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of Canada. Hummingbird Centre,
Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Performance.
The Shanghai Acrobats. By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
4 Mar. 2005. Performance.
Group or Artist. “Title of Song.” Title of Recording. Type of Recording. Maufacturer, Year. Medium.
A Sound Recording
Turner, Tina. “Missing You.” All the Best. Capital, 2004. CD.
Piccolomini, Josepe. Anita Anita. Perf. Helen Brown, Grace Spark, and Paul Messer. Springfield Opera Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Leon Nigh. Grammolon, 1955. LP.
Indigo Girls, perf. “Tangled Up in Blue.” By Bob Dylan. 1200 Curfews. Rec. 1994. Sony, 1995. MP3 file.
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin' Back. Warner Bros., 1985. Audiocassette.
Blakey, Art. "The Egyptian." Indestructible. Blue Note, 1964. Web. 28 July 2009.
A Composition, Ballet, or Opera
Do not italicize compositions identified only by form, number and key.
Beethoven, Ludvig van. Symphony no. 5 in A, op. 92. Print.
A Musical Score
Name of Composer. Title of Work, Op., No. Date Composition Written. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1. New York: Fischer, 1918. Print.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65. 1819. London: Harris, 1933. Print.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene. 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Print.
Name of Product. Company, or Institution. Descriptive Label. Channel. Date. Medium.
A Television or Radio Advertisement
Staples. Advertisement. CBS. 3 Dec. 2000. Television.
Truth by Calvin Klein. Advertisement. Vogue Dec. 2000: 95-98. Print.
Arbella Insurance. Advertisement. Boston.com. New York Times, n.d.. Web. 3 June 2009.
A Personal Interview
Purdue, Peter. Personal Interview. 1 Dec. 2000.
Diamaond, Carol. Telephone Interview. 27 May 2002.
A Published Interview
Damon, Matt. Interview. People Magazine 29 July 1998: 78-80.
A Television or Radio Interview
Clinton, Bill. Interview with Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. WTNH, New Haven. 14 Nov.1996. Radio.
Weisel. Elie. Interview by Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. WABC. New York, 18 Apr. 2002. Television.
Speaker's Name. "Title of Lecture or Speech." The Sponsoring Organization. Location, City. Date (day, month, year format). Medium.
A Speech or Lecture
Harris, Muriel. "Writing Labs: A Short History." 2003 Writing Center Conference. National Writing Centers Association. La Swank Hotel, Seattle. 28 March 2003. Lecture.
If the lecture or speech has no title, use an appropriate descriptive label (e.g., Lecture, Address, Keynote speech). Do not underline or enclose it in quotation marks.
Scroggs, Biff G. Keynote speech. Bushnell Conf. on Baseball Heroes. Bushnell Auditorium, Hartford.12 May 2003.
Bittman, Mark. "What's Wrong with What We Eat?" TED Talks, 12 Dec. 2007. Web. 18 May 2009.
Michelangelo. David. 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great Masters. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Print.
A Work of Art from a Subscription Database
Blake, Willam. Creation of Adam and Eve. N.d. ARTstor. Web. 26 Jan. 2008.
A Painting or Drawing
Rude, François. La Marseillaise. 1833-36. Sculpture. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss. 1909. Sculpture. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris.
A Photograph Reproduced in a Book
Abell, Sam. Japan. 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones. By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999.232. Print.
A Personal Photograph
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. 22 Mar. 2003.
Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.
Hoflehner, Josef. Liquid Wall. N.d. Private Collection. Photographer's Gallery. web. 25 Mar. 2009.
Podcast. 2 Mar. 2012.
Levitt, Steven D. Freakonomics. New Yrok: Harper Collins, 2006. Kindle file.
Purdue Online Writing Lab:
• Humanities Style (Notes and Bibliography Style) is used in literature, arts and history. Sources are cited using footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is provided at the end of the paper on a separate page. The bibliography includes all resources used, not just those cited in the references. Citations include all available information and are listed in alphabetical order.
• Scientific/Social Sciences Style (Author-Date Style) is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences.Bibilographic information is cited cited in the body or text of the research paper using parenthetical notations. A Works Cited page is provided at the end of the paper.
There are two basic systems of Turabian style documentation:
• Notes and Bibliography Style is generally used in literature, history, and the arts. Bibliographic information is cited within the text using numbered footnotes or endnotes. A Bibliography or Works Cited list is provided at the end of the paper, listing alphabetically all sources used.
• In-text Author-Date Citations and Reference List is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Sources are cited in parenthesis within the text and include the author's last name, publication year, and page(s) referred to. An alphabetized Reference List at the end of the paper provides full bibliographic information for all works cited in parenthetical citations.
The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide
Chicago Manual of Style - Documentary Note or Humanities Style
Turabian Quick Guide
Turabian Citation Style Guide
SFU Library - Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian Style
Citing Sources Using Chicago/Turabian Style: Author-Date System
Citing Sources Using Chicago/Turabian Style: Notes System
Turabian and Chicago Styles Citations