When writing a research paper, every borrowed word, idea, or fact must be clearly documented. Writers do this by creating a Works Cited page listing all of the print and nonprint sources used within the paper. It appears at the end of the research paper, and all sources are listed together, arranged alphabetically according to the first letter of each entry.
Citation Generators are interactive web tools designed to assist students and teachers in creating bibliographic citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, or Turabian style. Citations of print and electronic materials are automatically generated upon completion of an online form and can be copied and pasted into a Works Cited page.
MLA style refers to the guidelies used in writing and citing research papers as described in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). It is predominantly used in the humanities, especially English studies, and the studies of other modern languages and literatures including comparative literature, literary criticism, media studies, cultural studies and realted disciplines. MLA style features the use of parenthetical citations within the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the research paper.
Author(s). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
A Book by One Author or Editor
Eaton, Katherine B. Daily Life in the Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. Print.
Streussguth, Thomas, ed. Custer’s Last Stand. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2003. Print.
A Book by Two or Three Authors or Editors
Bloom, Jonathan and Sheila Blair. Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 2002. Print.
Hinshaw, John and Paul Le Blanc, eds. U.S. Labor in the Twentieth Century: Studies in Working Class Struggles and Insurgency. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2000. Print.
If the persons named on the title page are editors or compilers, add a comma after the final name, then the abbreviation "eds." or "comps."
Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson, eds. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.
A Book by Four or More Authors or Editors
If there are more than three authors or editors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (the Latin abbreviation for "and others"), or you may list all of the authors in the same order in which they appear on the title page.
Shields, J., et al. The History of the English Alley. Hartford: Merganser Press,1997. Print.
A Book by a Corporate Author or Organization
A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1973. Print.
A Book with No Author
List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Anderson, Shaun and Collier, Paul.
The Book of Rule: How the World is Governed. London: DK, 2004. Print.
A Book with an Editor in Additon to an Author
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. F. W. Robinson. Boston: Houghton, 1957. Print.
Two or More Books by the Same Author
When citing two or more books by the same author, list the author’s name in the first citation only. For subsequent citations, type three hypens, add a period, skip a space, and give the title. The three hyphens stand for the names(s) of the author(s) in the preceding entry. List the titles of the books in alphabetical order.
Nardo, Don. The American Revolution. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2003. Print.
---. Atlantis. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2003. Print.
If the person is the single author of one book but a joint author of another book, each entry must list the person’s name in full.
Mumford, Lewis. The Highway and the City. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1993. Print.
Mumford, Lewis and Stuart Hall. Pollution in the Cities. Boston: Little, Brown, 1990. Print.
An Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)
To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed." or, for multiple editors, "eds" (for edited by).
Ramazani, Jahan, Richard Ellman, and Robert O’Clair, eds. The Norton Anthology of Modern Contemporary Poetry. New York: Norton, 2003. Print.
A Book That is Translated
Kertész, Imre. Fateless. Trans. Christopher C. Wilson and Katherine M. Wilson. Evanston, IL: Northwester University Press, 1992. Print.
A Book That is Translated and Edited
Cite as you would any other book. Add "Trans."—the abbreviation for translated by—and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
Freud, Sigmund. The Letters of Sigmund Freud. Ed. Ernest L. Freud. Trans. Tania and James Stern. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Print.
A Book in a Series
If a book is a part of a series, insert the name of the series and the number of the book’s place in the series between the title and publication information.
Stone, Frederick W. “Approaches to Teaching Byron’s Poetry.” Approaches to Teaching World Literature. Vol. 36. New York: Macmillan, 1991. Print.
A Book in a Literary Criticism Series
“Hemingway, Ernest.” Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 8. Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. 39 vols. 174-210. Print.
Wexler, Barbara. Violent Relationships: Battering and Abuse among Adults. Information Plus Reference Series. Detroit, Gale, 2003. Print.
A Book With Two or More Volumes
Page, Melvin E., ed. Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.
If the volume has a different title from the entire work, give the title of the multivolume set.
Arbor, Hannah. Imperialism. London: Oxford University Press, 1989. Vol.2 of The Origins of Totalitarianism,
3 vols. Print
A Sacred Text
Give the name of the specific edition you are using, any editor(s) associated with it, followed by the publication information.
The Holy Bible. Revised Standard Version. New York: New American Library, 1962. Print.
The New Jerusalem Bible. Ed. Susan Jones. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Print.
A Reprinted Book
Weston, Jessie L. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. 1920. New York: Doubleday, 1987. Print.
A Republished Book
Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. New York: Routledge, 1999. Print.
If a republished book has a different title from the original book, state the original title and publication date followed by “Rpt. as” (reprinted as) and the new title and publication information.
Isherwood, Christopher. Mr. Norris Changes Trains. 1935. Rpt as The Last Mr. Norris. New York: Harper Row, 1967. Print.
A Second or Later Edition
Ornstein, Robert. Training Your Dog. 2nd. Ed. New York: Harcourt, 1997. Print.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium of publication.
A Chapter in a Book
Jones, James. “American Economy Before the Civil War." American History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. Print.
A Selection in an Anthology (Essay, Poem, Short Story)
Jones, James. “Daydreaming.” Fictions. Comp. and Ed. John Smith. New York: Harper and Row, 1968. 127-135. Print.
An Essay Written by One Person and Edited by Another
Weyler, Karen A. "Captivity Narratives." The History of Southern Women's Literature. Ed. Carolyn Perry and Mary Louise Weaks. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Unviversity Press, 2002. 25-31. Print.
A Preface, Introduction, Foreward, or Afterward
When citing a foreward, begin with the name of the person who wrote the foreward, then the word “Foreward,” followed by the title of the work, its author and the other publication information including the page numbers. Follow the same procedure for citing a procedure for citing a preface, introduction, and afterward.
Pepin, Ronald E. Foreward. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-1997.
By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 1997. ii-ix. Print.
If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work, then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By."
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. By
Kenneth Burke. 1935. 3rd ed. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984. xiii-xliv. Print.
Atlas of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Munro, David, ed. Cambridge World Gazetteer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
A Magazine Article
A Scholarly Journal Article
A Newspaper Article
A Letter to the Editor
A Reply to a Letter to the Editor
A Magazine Article
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Pages. Medium of publication.
A Signed Article in a Weekly or Bi-Monthly Magazine
Whitaker, Mark. “Getting Tough at Last.” Newsweek 10 May 1993: 22. Print.
Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. "A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste." Business Week 6 May
2002: 94-96. Print.
An Unsigned Article in a Weekly or Bi-Monthly Magazine
“A Mask of Genius.” Time 26 May 1980: 79. Print.
“Bacteriological Warfare.” Scientific American 11 March 1995: 67, 70. Print.
A Signed Article in a Monthly Magazine
Tobias, Sheila. “Math Anxiety and Physics: Some Thoughts on Learning Difficult Subjects.” Physics Today June 1985: 60-68. Print.
Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping Mar. 2006: 143-48. Print.
An Unsigned Article in a Monthly Magazine
“Bacteriological Warfare.” Scientific American March 1995: 67, 70. Print.
A Magazine Article Whose Title Contains a Quotation or Title Within a Quotation
Hurley, Harold. “Cracking the Secret Code in Oate’s 'Where are You Going, Where Have You Been?’” New Yorker 22 Feb. 1996: 43-47. Print.
A Scholarly Journal Article
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Year): Page(s). Medium of Publication.
A Journal Article with with Volume Number Only
Davis, William D., Thomas Cleary, Michelle Donnelly, and Samuel Hellerman. "Using Sensor Signals to
Analyze Fires." Fire Technology 39 (2003): 295-308. Print.
A Journal Article with Volume Number and Issue Number
Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number.Issue Number (Year): Page(s). Medium of Publication.
Murphy, Karen L., Roseanne DePasquale, and Erin McNamara. "Meaningful Connections: Using
Technology in Primary Classrooms." Young Children 58.6 (2003): 12-18. Print.
A Newspaper Article
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Source Day Month Year: Section/ Page(s).
A Signed Article from a Daily Newspaper
Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001: D5 Print.
An Unsigned Article from a Daily Newspaper
“Crossroads for Civil Rights Policy.” Atlanta Constitution 28 May 1985: A22. Print.
A Newspaper Article with Non-continuous Pages
Smith, Bob. “Schools Losing Ground.” USA Today 5 May 2001: B3+. Print.
A Newspaper Article from a Late or Special Edition
If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition following the date (e.g. 17 May 1987, late ed.).
“Striking a Pose With Sally Miles.” New York Times 15 Oct. 1997, late ed.: D12. Print.
Wingfield, Nick. “Unraveling the Mysteries Inside Web Shopper’s Minds.” Wall Street Journal 18 June 1998: East ed.: B6+. Print.
Shapiro, Ellen. Rev. of The Ha-Ha by Dave King. People 63:5 (2005): 50.Print.
Kauffnan, Stanley. "Towards the Shadow." Rev. of Iris, dir. Richard Eyre. New Republic 11 Feb. 2002:
26- 27. Print.
A Letter to the Editor
Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Print.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?" Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan 2003: 33-37. Print.
A Reply to a Letter to the Editor
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. Print.
Citations government agencies should include the name of the government first, then the name of the agency.
New York State. Commission on Capital Punishment. Report of the Commission to Investigate and Report the Most Humane and Practical Method of Carrying Into Effect the Sentence of Death in Capital Cases. Albany: Troy Press, 1988. Print.
U.S. Bureau of Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1987. 107th ed. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977. Print.
United Nations. General Assembly. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. New York: United Nations, 1979. Print.
Maps and Charts
A Map on a Single Sheet
Author. Title of Map. Format. Edition. Scale. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.
National Geographic Society. South Asia, with Afghanistan and Myanmar. Map. 1:7,345,000, 1"=116 miles. Washington: National Geographic Society, May 1997. Print.
Manitoba: Municipalities Local Government Districts 1988. Map. 3rd edition. 1:1,000,000. Winnipeg: Manitoba Natural Resources, Surveys and Mapping Branch, 1987. Print.
A Map in a Book
Author. "Title of Map." Format. Scale. In: Book Author. Title of Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date: Page(s).
Baum, Frank L. "The Yellow Brick Road." Map. Scale not given. In: Frank L. Baum. The Wizard of Oz. Kansas City: Munchkin, Inc., 1938: 32. Print.
Author. Title of Chart. Format. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.
2004 Andex Chart. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Print.
Other Print Sources
Lufthansa. Advertisement. Time 20 Nov. 2000: 151. Print.
A Diagram in a Book
Author. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Medium of Publication.
Meridian, Merry. Lines for All Occasions. Greenwich: Straight Shooter Press, 1985. Print.
A Diagram in a Magazine or Scholarly Journal
Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine or Journal. Volume Number (Date): Page(s). Medium of Publication.
Krygier, John B., David H. Hickcox, and Richard D. Fusch. “Go Up Yonder and Turn Right or Left: Directions for Successful Field Work.” Journal for the Edification of Geographers 3 (1998): 1-27. Print.
U.S. Department of State. Bangladesh. Background Notes. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, April 1987. Print.
A Published Dissertation
Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1987. Merganse Press: Hartford, 1996. Print.
An Unpublished Dissertation
Darling, Charles W. “Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur.” Diss. Rutgers U. 1997. Print.
A Legal Document
Do not underline or put quotation marks around titles of laws or acts. You may abbreviate titles, with the works cited by sections and the years added if relevant.
21 US Code. Sec. 1401a. 1988. Print.
US Const. Art. 1, sec. 1. Print.
Citations of acts require the act’s name, its Public Law number, the date it was enacted, and its Statutes at Large cataloging number.
Driving a Professor Crazy Act of 1996. Publ. L. 100-418. 14 Nov. 1996. Stat. 99.1496. PRint.
The names of cases (unlike laws) are underlined.
Pepin v. Medieval Scholars Soc. of America. 176 USPQ 677. CT. Super. Ct. 1996. Print.
A Pamphlet or Brochure
Office of the Dean of Students. Resources for Success: Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorders. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 2000. Print.
Jordan, Barbara. Letter to author. 12 December 1994. Print.
Online Encyclopedia Articles
Online Magazine Articles
Online Scholarly Journals
Online Newspaper Articles
Online Government Publications
Online Maps, Charts and Diagrams
Articles from Online Subscription Databases
MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. Because Web addresses often change and documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web, MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources by title or author searches in Internet Search Engines.
If your teacher requires a URL for Web sources, include the URL, enclosed in angle brackets, at the end of the entry. When a URL in a works cited entry must be divided at the end of a line, break it after a slash. Do not insert a hyphen.
A Web Site With an Author
Author(s). Title of Site. Sonsor of Site. Publication Date or Most Recent Update. Medium. Date of Access.
Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther. Lynn Peterson, 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2009.
Schrock, Kathy. Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators. Discovery Education, 1 May 1995. Web.
2 May 2001.
A Web Site With an Organization or Group as Author
Biography Online. 27 Nov. 2002.The Biography Channel. Web. 27 Nov. 2002. Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. 2002. Library of Congress. Web. 27 Nov. 2002.
A Web Site With No Author
Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana University, 4 Jan. 1998. Web. 15 May 2006.
Margaret Sanger Papers Project. History Dept., New York U, 18 Oct. 2000. Web. 6 Jan. 2009.
A Web Site With an Editor
Halsall, Paul, ed. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham U, 22 Sept. 2001. Web. 19 Jan. 2009.
A Web Site with No Title
If no title for the web site is given, write Home page. Do not underline or use quotation marks.
Edmunds.com. Home page. Web. 28 Apr. 2000.
Yoon, Mina. Home page. Oak Ridge Natl. Laboratory, 28 Dec. 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2009.
A Web Site with No Publication Date
"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow.com. eHow, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2009.
A Personal Web Site
Author. Home Page. Publication Date. Medium. Date of Access.
Lancashire, Ian. Home page. 28 Mar. 2002. Web. 15 May 2002.
Author. Title of Book. Editor, Compiler or Translator. Title of Web Site. Sponsonr of Site, Year of Publication. Web. Date of Access.
An Entire Online Book
Milton, John. Paradise Lost: Book I. Poetryfoundation.org. Poetry Foundation, 2008. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.
Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio. E-text created by Judith Boss for Project Gutenberg. Champaign, IL, 1996. Web. 26 July 2000.
Part of an Online Book
Author. "Title of Chapter." Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication, or Most Recent Update. Name of Institution or Organization. Medium. Date of Access .
Adams, Henry. "Diplomacy." The Education of Henry Adams. Boston: Houghton, 1918. N. pag.
Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Web. 8 Jan. 2007.
An Online Poem, Essay or Short Story With an Author
Nesbit, Edith. "Marching Song." Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Apr. 1997. Indiana U. Web. 26 Apr. 1997.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Spiritual Laws.” Essays. 26 May 1999. Internet Public Library. Web. 4 Dec. 2002.
Online Encyclopedia Articles
Author. "Title of Article." Title of of Encyclopedia. Subscriber Name, Place. Publisher. Medium. Access Date.
A Signed Online Encyclopedia Article
Rice,Otis K. "Lewis and ClarkExpedition." The New Book of KnowledgeOnline. Grolier Interactive, 2005. Web.. 23 Oct. 2008.
Rennie, Michael. "From Spooky Action to Tiny Radios." Host Steve Mirskly, Science Talk.
Scientific American, 4 Mar. 2009. MP3 file. 15 Mar. 2009.
"First Coed College." Profile America, 7 Sept. 2006. General OneFile. Web. 23 July 2009.
Price, Caroline and Timothy Chappell. “Can Love Be Rational?” The Philosophy of Love – Audio. iTunes U. The Open University, 2011. Podcast. 2 Mar. 2012.
A YouTube Video
The MLA does not specifically address how to cite a YouTube video. Based on Purdue OWL standards for other media formats, the following format is the most acceptable for citing YouTube videos:
Shimabukuro, Jake. "Ukulele Weeps by Jake Shimabukuro." Online video clip.YouTube. You Tube, 22 Apr. 2006.
Web. 9. Sept. 2010.
Obama, Barack. "We Have a Lot of Work to Do." Speech.YouTube. 2 Nov. 2008. You Tube, Web. 23 June 2009.
"How to Train a Cat to Operate a Light Switch." Richard Norton. YouTube. You Tube, 4 Nov. 2006. Web. 27 Aug. 2009.
A Kindle Book
Levitt, Steven D. Freakonomics. New Yrok: Harper Collins, 2006. Kindle file.
Athar, Sohaib (ReallyVirtual). “Helicopter hovering above Abbottabad at 1AM is a rare event.” 1 May 2011, 3:58 p.m. Tweet.
Zabolotney, Bonne (BonneZ). “Stories as data : rich and diverse way to approach health design research #maggiebreslin”.
7 March 2012, Tweet.
APACitation Style Guides
APA style refers to the guidelines used in writing and citing research papers as described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It is predominantly used in the social sciences, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, business, economics, nursing, social work, and criminology, and in the hard sciences.
Chicagostyle refers to the guidelines used in writing and citing research papers as described in the The ChicagoStyle Manual, 16th ed. It presents two basic systems of documentation:
• Humanities Style (Notes and Bibliography Style) is used in literature, arts and history. Sources are cited using footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is provided at the end of the paper on a separate page. The bibliography includes all resources used, not just those cited in the references. Citations include all available information and are listed in alphabetical order.
• Scientific/Social Sciences Style (Author-Date Style) is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences.Bibilographic information is cited cited in the body or text of the research paper using parenthetical notations. A Works Cited page is provided at the end of the paper.
Turabian style refers to the guidelines used in writing and citing research papers as described in Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. It is based on the University of Chicago Press’s Manual of Style, incorporating the most important rules of Chicago style and omitting some publishing details and options. Turabian style is intended for papers, theses, dissertations, and other scholarly research not meant for publication.
There are two basic systems of Turabian style documentation:
• Notes and Bibliography Style is generally used in literature, history, and the arts. Bibliographic information is cited within the text using numbered footnotes or endnotes. A Bibliography or Works Cited list is provided at the end of the paper, listing alphabetically all sources used.
• In-text Author-Date Citations and Reference List is used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Sources are cited in parenthesis within the text and include the author's last name, publication year, and page(s) referred to. An alphabetized Reference List at the end of the paper provides full bibliographic information for all works cited in parenthetical citations.
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