Requirements and Recommendations
Illnesses: Diphtheria, Tetanu ( Lock jaw ), , Pertussis ( whooping cough ) Most cases now in adolescents and adults.
- Vaccines: Daptacel: DTap, Infanrix:DTaP, Pediarix: Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, tetanus, acellullar pertussis, inactivated polio
- Recommendations: Universal starting age 2 monhts, Five Doses: 2,4,6,12-18 months,4-6 years
- At least 4 doses of Diptheria + Pertussus + Tetanus or Diptheria + Tetanus with the last dose given after 4 years old.
- DT Boosters/DPaT Boosters - A booster is required every 10 years. Boostrix: Ages 11-18 years, licnsed Spring 2005. Adacel: Ages 11-64 years, Licensed Spring 2005.
- Recommendations: Use in place of TD. All preteens at 11-12 year visit. All teens, wait 2-5 years after td. Adults: Adacel: especially adults around infants.
Inactivated Polio vaccine:
Polio has been eliminated from the Western Hemisphere
There are still cases in India, Indonesia and Africa
- Vaccines: Live attenuated oral polio vaccine no longer used in the US since 2000, IPOL:Inactivated polio vacccine, Pediatrix:DTaP, Hep B, IPV
- Recommendations: Universal starting age at 2 months.
At least 4 doses of Polio Vaccine at 2,4,6-18 months, 4-6 years.
Illnesses: Measles / Mumps / Rubella Measles; no longer endemic in US but still present in most of the world. Mumps: Parotitis, recent large outbreak in colleges in the Midwest. Rubella: No longer endemic in US but present elsewhere.
- Vaccines: MMR combination, MMR-V, combined with varicella vaccine, Monovalent vaccines are available but not recommended.
- Recommendations: Universal starting at age 12 months. two doses: 12-15-months, 4-6-years
A single dose of each or combination dose of all three given after 15 months of age.
- MMR (Measles / Mumps / Rubella) Booster - At least one dose is required.
Illnesses: Meningiitis, Pneumonia, Arthritis, Epiglottitis, and more. Essentially eliiminated in the US.
- Vaccines: ActHIP: PRP-T, 4 doses required. PedvaxHIB: PRP-OMP, 3 doses required. HIB titer: HbOC, 4 doses required. TriHIBit: DTaP/PRP-T, licensed for the 4th dose only. Comvax: PRP-OMP/Hep B.
- Recommendations: Universal starting at age 2 months. Three to four doses depending on vaccine used.
Illness: Hepatitis, asymptomatic in young children and some adults. Food borne outbreaks remain common.
- Vaccines: Havrix, Vaqta, Twinrix: Combined with Hepatitis B vaccine.
- Recommendations: All children starting at age 12 months. Two doses apart, 6 months apart. May do a catch up dose at any physician visit.
Hepatitis B Series:
Illness: Hepatitis B: Often asymptomatic. Chronic infection in 10% of adults,, 90% of infants, cirrhosis or persistent hepatitis, Hepatocelllular carcinoma.
- Vaccines: Energix-B. Recombivax HB, Comvax:Hepatitis B & Hemophilus influenzae, Twinrix: Hepatitis B & Hepatitis A, Pediarix: Hepatits B, Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio.
- Recommendations: Universal starting at birth. Three doses: Birth, 1-2 months, 6-18 months. Catch Up doses: 3 doses; 0-4 weeks later, 8 weeks later, (16 weeks after 1st dose) .
Hepatitis B vaccinations will be required for students in high school and at institutions of higher education by the New Jersey Statutes P.L. 2002, c.058 (A1888 3R) Chapter 58.
Beginning with the 2004-2005 school year, a principal, director or other person in charge of a public or private school in the State shall not knowingly admit or retain in grades 9 through 12 a child whose parent or guardian has not submitted acceptable evidence of the child's immunization for hepatitis B prior to or during enrollment in ninth grade, as provided by regulation of the Commissioner of Health and Senior Services. This law was approved August 3, 2002.
What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis is a liver infection caused by a virus. Chronic Hepatitis B is a long term infection of the liver that develops after a bout of acute hepatitis.
How does a person get Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B can be caught in different ways. Hepatitis B is spread by contact with infected blood or other body fluids of people who have Hepatitis B infection. For example, close inter-personal contact with an infected person or being accidentally stuck with a needle that was used on an infected person.
What are the symptoms of acute Hepatitis B? Symptoms of Hepatitis B may include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice (the skin turns yellow), weakness and fatigue. Bowel movements may be gray in color. The urine may be dark and look like tea.
Sometimes, though, hepatitis is a mild illness. If you have a mild case of hepatitis, you may not even realize that you have it. It may not cause symptoms or may only cause symptoms similar to the stomach flu. You might think you have the flu, and not know you have hepatitis.
What is the difference between acute and chronic hepatitis? When you are having symptoms, hepatitis is in the acute stage. The acute stage can last from several weeks to several months. In some people, Hepatitis B becomes an illness that lasts a long time, a condition called chronic hepatitis. Other people recover from the infection and have no long-lasting problems.
After a person has recovered from acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis can set in. Chronic hepatitis occurs when the liver has been damaged from the acute illness and doesn't recover. Chronic hepatitis develops in 10% to 20% of people who have Hepatitis B and in 30% to 50% of people who have Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is also caused by a virus and can effect the liver the same as Hepatitis B.
Are there any symptoms with chronic Hepatitis B? People with chronic Hepatitis B may not have any symptoms at all. But, in some people, chronic hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis of the liver. Cirrhosis occurs when the lever cells die and are replaced by scar tissue and fat. The liver stops working and can't cleanse the body of wastes. People in the early states of cirrhosis may not have symptoms. When cirrhosis gets worse, symptoms begin. They may include weight loss, fatigue, jaundice, nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite. Cirrhosis can lead to liver failure (the liver stops working) and liver cancer.
How is chronic hepatitis diagnosed? Blood tests are used to diagnose chronic Hepatitis B. Blood tests can also tell your doctor whether your liver is working properly. This can also be used to follow your condition if treatment is required.
Can Hepatitis B be prevented? Yes, a vaccine is available to prevent Hepatitis B. This vaccine should be given to people who are at high risk for this illness, such as health care workers, all children, drug users, people who get tattoos or body piercing, and people who have frequent, intimate personal contact with others.
How is the vaccine given? Primary vaccination consists of three intra-muscular injections; the second dose given one month after the first, and the third dose given six months after the first. Long term studies of healthy adults and children indicate that the vaccine can protect against Hepatitis B infection for about 9 years. Currently, booster doses of vaccine are not recommended for children and adults with normal immune status. The possible need for booster doses will be assessed as additional information becomes available.
For More Information
American Liver Foundation
75 Maiden Lane, Suite 603
New York, NJ 10038-4810
Internet address: http://www.liverfoundation.org
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine:
Illnesses: meningococcemia, meningococcal meningiitis
- Vaccines: Menactra; conjugate vaccine with serogrops A,C,W135, Y, Licensed 2005. Replaces Menommune.
- Recommendations: Universal at age 11-12 years. Give at 15 years if not received previously. College Freshmen living in dormitories. New Jersey law for students living on Campus.
Illness: Chicken pox, Shingles
- Vaccines: Varivax:VZV, Licensed 1995, ProQUad:MMR-V. Licensed 2005, Zostavax: VZV for adults, Licensed 2006.
- Recommendations: Universal starting at age 12-18 months. Second dose recommended for all as of June 2006. Zostavax for age 60 and above to prevent shingles.
Illness: The flu
- Vaccines: Different strains each year: 2 influenza A strains and 1 B. Vaccines are inactivated. Flumist live attenuated.
- Recommendations: Children 6 months to 5 years and their contacts. Two doses for the first season if age 9 or less, 1 dose yearly for others. Inactivated; any age over 6 months. Live Attenuated: Ages 5 to 50 years, no underlying health problems. High Risk Patients; Asthmatics, Heart disease, chronic illness, pregnant, age over 50 years , contacts of at risk people.
Illnesses: meningitis, pneumonia, arthritis, sepsis, otitis media, sinusitis.
- Vaccines: Prevnar, Pneumovax: At risk children starting at age 2, Adults age 65 and older, At risk children: Sickle cell disease, asplenia, etc.
Human papillomavirus virus vaccine:
Illness: Warts, condylmata acuminate (anogenital warts) Over 40% of adolescents already infected, potential for cervical cancer.
- Vaccines: Gardasil: Licensed June 2006. Three dose series.
- Current Recommendations: Girls at Preteen visits (age 11-12). Licensed for ages 9-27.
FACT SHEET FOR HPV
What is human papillomavirus ( HPV)?
HPV is a common virus that is passed on through gential contact. There are about 40 types of HPV. While most HPV types cause no symptoms and go away on their own, some types can cause cervical cancer in women and other types can cause warts in the genital areas.
How common is HPV?
At least half of sexually active people will get HPV at some time in their lives, Anyone who has ever had genital contact with other another person can get HPV. Every year in the United States , about 6.2 million people get HPV. HPV is most common in people who are in their late teens and early 20's. Many people who have HPV may show no signs or symptoms.
What is the HPV Vaccine?
The Food and Drug Administration ( FDA) licensed a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases caused by types of HPV for girls/women ages 9-26 years. The HPV vaccine has been tested in over 11,000 females around the world. The HPV vaccine can prevent most genital warts and most cases of cervical cancer. However this vaccine does not treat existing HPV infections or genital warts.
How is the HPV vaccine administered?
- The vaccine is given in 3 doses over 6 months.
- 1st dose: Now or at a date you and your healthcare provider choose.
- 2nd dose: 2 months after 1st dose
- 3rd dose: 6 months after 1st dose
What are the side effects of the HPV vaccine?
The HPV vaccine does not appear to have serious side effects. Common side effects may include pain, redness, swelling or itching at the injection site and mild fever.
Who should get the HPV vaccine?
The HPV vaccine is recommended for 11-12 year old girls and can be given to girls as young as 9 years of age. The vaccine is also recommended for 13-26 year old girls/women who have not yet received the vaccine. Ideally, females should get the vaccine before they become sexually active because they have not been exposed to HPV.
Who should not get the HPV vaccine?
People who have had an allergic reaction to yeast or any other component of HPV vaccine or to an earlier dose of HPV vaccine. Life-threatning allergic reactions from vaccines are rare but possible. If they occur, it could be within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination. People who are ill should wait until they recover before getting the vaccine. THE HPV VACCINE IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR BOYS.
Does the vaccine protect against all types of HPV?
The vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV and it will not prevent all cases of cervical cancer or genital warts. About 30% of cervical cancers and 10% of genital warts will not be prevented by the vaccine. It is important to continue getting screened for cervical cancer(e.g., regular Pap tests).
How long does the HPV vaccine protection last?
Studies have followed women for five years and found that they are still protected. More research is being done to find out how long protection will last.
Where can I get more information?
Illnesses: Vomiting, Diarrhea
- Vaccines: RotaTeq; Licensed february 2006 Coming soon is Rotarix.
- Recommendations: All infants at 2,4,6 months of age. No Catch up vaccination available.
Mantoux Tuberculosis (TB) Screen
Due to changes in State Law, only students transferring into WHRHS Schools from specified categories will be required to receive Mantoux tuberculin testing.
A list of testing categories has been provided to each school by the State Department of Education and specified by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services.
Upon entrance, the School Nurse will notify parents/guardians of their child’s status and any required testing.